Monday, November 19, 2012

Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics: Converting Waste Plastics into Diesel and Other Fuels, By: Walter Kaminsky and John Scheirs

Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics: Converting Waste Plastics into Diesel and Other Fuels (Wiley Series in Polymer Science) By: Walter Kaminsky and John Scheirs
Publication Date: May 22, 2006 | ISBN-10: 0470021527  | Edition: 1 |10.3 MB

Pyrolysis is a recycling technique converting plastic waste into fuels, monomers, or other valuable materials by thermal and catalytic cracking processes. It allows the treatment of mixed, unwashed plastic wastes. For many years research has been carried out on thermally converting waste plastics into useful hydrocarbons liquids such as crude oil and diesel fuel. Recently the technology has matured to the point where commercial plants are now available. Pyrolysis recycling of mixed waste plastics into generator and transportation fuels is seen as the answer for recovering value from unwashed, mixed plastics and achieving their desired diversion from landfill. This book provides an overview of the science and technology of pyrolysis of waste plastics. It describes the types of plastics that are suitable for pyrolysis recycling, the mechanism of pyrolytic degradation of various plastics, characterization of the pyrolysis products and details of commercially mature pyrolysis technologies. This book also covers co-pyrolysis technology, including: waste plastic/waste oil, waste plastics/coal, and waste plastics/rubber.


1. Introduction to Feedstock Recycling of Plastics.
2. Acid-Catalyzed Cracking of Polyolefins: Primary Reaction Mechanisms
3. Catalytic Upgrading of Plastic Wastes.
 4. Thermal and Catalytic Conversion of Polyolefins.
5 Thermal and Catalytic Degradation of Waste HDPE.
6. Development of a Process for the Continuous Conversion of Waste Plastics Mixtures to Fuel.
7. Catalytic Degradation of Plastic Waste to Fuel over Microporous Materials.
8. Liquefaction of Municipal Waste Plastics over Acidic and Nonacidic Catalysts.
 .9 Kinetic Model of the Chemical and Catalytic Recycling of Waste Polyethylene into Fuels.
10. Production of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels by Pyrolysis and Gasification of Plastics: Technological Approach.
11. Yield and Composition of Gases and Oils/Waxes from the Feedstock Recycling of Waste Plastic.
 12. Composition of Liquid Fuels Derived from the Pyrolysis of Plastics.
13. Production of Premium Oil Products from Waste Plastic by Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing.
14. The Conversion of Waste Plastics/Petroleum Residue Mixtures to Transportation Fuels.
 15. Overview of Commercial Pyrolysis Processes for Waste Plastics.
16. Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes.
17. The Hamburg Fluidized-bed Pyrolysis Process to Recycle Polymer Wastes and Tires.
 18. Liquefaction of PVC Mixed Plastics.
19. Liquid Fuel from Plastic Wastes Using Extrusion-Rotary Kiln Reactors.
20. Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis of Polymers Containing Heteroatoms.
21. Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes.
22. Continuous Thermal Process for Cracking Polyolefin Wastes to Produce Hydrocarbons.
 23 Waste Plastic Pyrolysis in Free-Fall Reactors.
24. Monomer Recovery of Plastic Waste in a Fluidized Bed Process.
 25. Feedstock Recycling of PET.
 26. The Liquefaction of Plastic Containers and Packaging in Japan.
 27. Process and Equipment for Conversions of Waste Plastics into Fuels.
 28 Converting Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel by Pyrolysis: Developments in China.

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Sunday, October 21, 2012

Water Chemistry: Industrial and Power Station Water Treatment, By: K.S.Venkateswarlu

K.S. Venkateswarlu "Water Chemistry; Industrial and Power Station Water Treatment"
New Age International (P) Ltd. | English | 1999 | ISBN: 8122408761 | 153 pages | PDF | 6,1 MB

Study of water and steam chemistry transcends the traditional barriers between chemistry, engineering and physics. On account of its multi-disciplinary nature, the study of water chemistry has become technologically significant. This book is an attempt to bring to the attention of academic and professional chemists, various facets of water chemistry.
It blends basic and applied knowledge in this field. The subject matter covered includes properties of water at elevated temperatures, the characteristics of natural and industrial cooling waters as well as purifications by ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Several chapters are devoted to water and steam chemistry in thermal and nuclear power stations and in the utilisation of geothermal energy. Effluent treatment and water conservation have been dealt with briefly to provide a better and comprehensive study of the subject.
About the Author(s):

Dr. K.S. Venkateswarlu
had his early education in Andhra Pradesh, India. He joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay in 1955. He obtained a D.Sc. degree in 1961 for his work on, Chemical Consequences of Nuclear Transformations. During his stay at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA, he worked on the chemistry of transplutonium elements and radiation damage in graphite. Later his research interests encompassed solvent extraction, ion exchange, metal complexes, super conductivity and cold fusion. A large number of students have taken their Ph. D. degrees under his supervision.
From 1970 onwards, Dr. Venkateswarlu was closely involved with the development of water chemistry in all its aspects. He established a Division of Water Chemistry in BARC with a specialised Water and Stream Chemistry Laboratory at Kalpakkam near Madras. He was Chairman of the Committee on Steam and Water Chemistry, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India and was nominated to be the Chief Scientific Investigator of the Coordinated Research Programme on Water Chemistry in Nuclear Power Reactors conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. He was also the Expert Coordinator for the study on Water Chemistry in Thermal Power Stations carried out by the Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi. He has attended a number of national and international conferences in this field. Dr. Venkateswarlu is the author of over a 100 publications.

Chemical Characteristics of Natural Waters
Properties of Water at high Temperatures and Pressures
Water Chemistry, Material Compatibility and Corrosion
Treatment of Natural Waters for Industrial Cooling
Demineralisation by Ion Exchange
Water Chemistry in Fossil Fuel Fired Steam Generating Units
Steam Quality Requirements for High Pressure Turbines
Special Problems of Water Chemistry and Material Compatibility in Nuclear Power Stations
Geothermal Power and Water Chemistry
Analytical Techniques for Water Chemistry Monitoring and Control
Desalination, Effluent, Treatment and Water Conservation

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Friday, October 5, 2012

Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants: Volume 1, Third Edition by Ernest E. Ludwig

Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants: Volume 1, Third Edition by Ernest E. Ludwig.
Gulf Professional Publishing; 3 edition | March 9, 1995 | ISBN-10: 0884150259 | 630 pages | PDF | 28.9 Mb

This expanded edition introduces new design methods and is packed with examples, design charts, tables, and performance diagrams to add to the practical understanding of how selected equipment can be expected to perform in the process situation. A major addition is the comprehensive chapter on process safety design considerations, ranging from new devices and components to updated venting requirements for low-pressure storage tanks to the latest NFPA methods for sizing rupture disks and bursting panels, and more

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Sunday, September 23, 2012

Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation, By Marcio Luiz de Souza-Santos

Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification, Modeling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation. By Marcio Luiz de Souza-Santos, 2004, pdf, Language: English, Pages: 462, ISBN10 Code: 0824709713, ISBN13 Code: 9780824709716, (12.1 MB)

Bridging the gap between theory and application, Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification demonstrates the operational mechanisms, modeling, and simulation of equipment for the combustion and gasification of solid fuels.
Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification clearly illustrates procedures to improve and optimize the design of future units and the operation of existing industrial systems with recommendations and guidelines from a seasoned professional in the field.
Supplies an abundance of examples, models, and exercises for step-by-step instruction on the modeling and simulation of combustion and gasification machinery.
Features of Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification:
  • Clearly displays methods to build computer simulation programs that will effectively predict equipment performance
  • Offers methods to formulate sound mathematical models for boilers, gasifiers, furnaces, and incinerators
  • Shows how to interpret simulation results for the best design and operation of combustion and gasification equipment
  • Describes key aspects of solid and gas combustion phenomena
  • Provides detailed discussions of the basic and auxiliary equations used in specific projection models
  • Includes applications of moving and fluidized beds
Basic Remarks on Modeling and Simulation
  • Experiment and Simulation
  • A Classification for Mathematical Models
Solid Fuels
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Properties
  • Thermal Treatment
  • Gasification and Combustion
Equipment and Processes
  • Elements of Gas-Solid Systems
  • Moving Bed
  • Fluidized Bed
  • Suspension or Pneumatic Transport
  • Some Aspects Related to Fuels
Basic Calculations
  • Computation of Some Basic Parameters
  • Tips on Calculations
  • Observations
Zero-Dimensional Models
  • Basic Equations
  • Species Balance and Exiting Composition
  • Useful Relations
  • Summary for 0D-S Model
  • Flame Temperature
Introduction to One-Dimensional, Steady-State Models
  • Definitions
  • Fundamental Equations
  • Final Comments
Moving-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model
  • The Model
Chemical Reactions
  • Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reactions
  • Numbering of Chemical Components
  • A System of Chemical Reactions
  • Stoichiometry
  • Kinetics
  • Final Notes
Heterogeneous Reactions
  • General Form of the Problem
  • Generalized Treatment
  • Other Heterogeneous Reactions
Drying and Devolatilization
  • Drying
  • Devolatilization
Auxiliary Equations and Basic Calculations
  • Total Production Rates
  • Thiele Modulus
  • Diffusivities
  • Reactivity
  • Core Dimensions
  • Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients
  • Energy-Related Parameters
  • A Few Immediate Applications
  • Pressure Losses
Moving-Bed Simulation Program and Results
  • From Modeling to Simulation Program
  • Samples of Results
Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Gasification Model
  • The Mathematical Model
  • Boundary Conditions
Fluidization Dynamics
  • Splitting of Gas Injected into a Bed
  • Bubble Characteristics and Behavior
  • Circulation of Solid Particles
  • Entrainment and Elutriation
  • Particle Size Distribution
  • Recycling of Particles
  • Segregation
  • Areas and Volumes at Freeboard Section
  • Mass and Volume Fractions of Solids
Auxiliary Parameters Related to Fluidized-Bed Processes
  • Mass Transfers
  • Heat Transfers
  • Parameters Related to Reaction Rates
Fluidized-Bed Simulation Program and Results
  • The Block Diagram
  • Samples of Results
  • The Fundamental Equations of Transport Phenomena
  • Notes on Thermodynamics
  • Possible Improvements on Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions
  • Improvements on Various Aspects
  • Basics of Turbulent Flow
  • Classifications of Modeling for Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Equipment  
    Basic Techniques of Kinetics Determination.

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